Views:160 Author:Auril Publish Time: 2020-12-30 Origin:Site
Beer mashing is one of the most important processes in wort preparation. In the process of mash, water and crushed malt are fully combined. Under the action of various enzymes of malt, the soluble substances in the wort are thoroughly leached, and the wort is fermented into beer under the action of yeast.
The mashing can be divided into two categories: infusion mashing and decoction mashing , which are described as follows:
The infusion mashing is to heat the total mash to several resting temperatures to stop, and finally reach the mashing termination temperature.
The decoction mashing process is to separate a part of the mash for boiling, and then pump the boiled mash into the mash to make the temperature of the mixed mash reach the next higher resting temperature.
The characteristics of the infusion mashing are: the mash is not boiled from beginning to end, and various substances are extracted solely by the action of enzymes, and the wort retains certain enzyme activity before boiling.
According to whether auxiliary materials are added in the mashing process, it can be divided into single infusion mashing and double infusion mashing . Among them,single mashing infusion can be divided into two types: constant temperature infusion mashing and heating infusion mashing.
1. Single constant temperature infusion mashing
The feeding temperature (that is, the mashing temperature) is about 65°C, and the temperature is raised to the filtration temperature of 78°C after mashing for 1 to 2 hours for filtration. There is no protein decomposition stage, so it is only suitable for malt with relatively complete protein decomposition.
At 61-63°C, β-amylase is more active, and wort with high fermentability can be obtained; At 69-73°C, α-amylase is more active, producing non-fermentable dextrin, and the resulting wort has a low final fermentation degree,rich in dextrin, suitable for brewing sweet, full-bodied beer. When the temperature reaches 69-70°C, the decomposition ability of β-amylase will decrease rapidly. When the temperature is lower than 65°C, the decomposition speed of β-amylase is very slow and incomplete saccharification may occur. Taking into account the temperature of the two enzymes, the most recommended single-step sugar output temperature is 65-68℃. At this sugar output temperature, the fermentation and taste of the wort are very good.
2.Single heating infusion mashing
Feed the crushed malt at 35℃～37℃, soak the raw materials, directly raise the temperature to 50℃ for protein decomposition, then slowly raise the temperature to 65℃, 72℃ for segmented mashing, and then raise the temperature to 78℃ for filtering. The heating infusion mashing requires the use of well-dissolved malt, which is especially suitable for brewing all-malt beer and top-fermented beer. 70% of British beer is top fermented beer, and all of them choose heating infusion mashing .
3. Double infusion mashing
After the mash and the gelatinized mash are mixed, the mash is no longer boiled, but is directly heated in the mashing tank of brewhouse to reach the required temperature in each stage of mashing. Since only the gelatinized mash in the cooking tank is boiled, the high-molecular gluten material and other impurities in the endosperm cell wall dissolve less. The wort produced is light in color, low in viscosity, soft in taste, and high in fermentation. It is especially suitable for light beer and dry beer; Simple operation and short mashing time, it can be completed in three hours.
Compared with the decoction mashing , the infusion mashing is relatively simple, and only a mashing tank is required, and no cooking tank is needed. Simple operation, low energy consumption and short working time.
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