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Don't have a favorite beer? All right! Make your own!!
The biggest purpose of crushing system is to break the solubles out of the husks and increase the surface area to make the solubles easier to precipitate and increase the efficiency of saccharification. Moisturizing the malt before crushing can enhance the toughness of the husk and keep the husk intact.
Malt crush system and malt transfer system
Mashing is to convert the starch in malt into sugar under the combined action of a certain temperature and time, which is finally fermented into alcohol and carbon dioxide by yeast. The mashing process requires a variety of enzymes in malt to work together, the two most important enzymes are α-amylase and β-amylase. α-amylase rough-processes long-chain starches and cuts them into short-chain starches. The most suitable temperature for the α-amylase is 70-75℃, and the inactivation temperature is 80℃. β-amylase reprocesses the short-chain starch into a sugar molecule with a smaller molecular structure. The most suitable temperature for β-amylase is 60-65℃, and the inactivation temperature is 70℃.
The saccharification process should pay attention to heat preservation and temperature control, and the time is generally not less than 60 minutes. It is generally believed that the optimum temperature for the one-step sugar production method used in home brewing should be between 65-68°C. If you need a heavy body, you should let α-amylase play more role, can make the saccharification temperature higher, such as 68 ℃. These beers are often accompanied by higher residual sugars. Most of these sugars are non-fermentable sugars, so beers with thicker bodies tend to be sweeter. If you need a thinner body, you should allow β-amylase to play more role, which can lower the saccharification temperature, such as 65°C.
The saccharified wort is actually syrup, which contains a variety of sugars, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, maltotriose, non-fermentable dextrin, and so on. The collected wort is best to be clear, without impurities such as wheat husks mixed in, otherwise bad flavors (such as tannins, astringency, etc.) will appear during the later brewing.
Lauter: Household brewing is generally a filter bag plus a cooling tube
The main purpose of this step is: to fully sterilize and disinfect the wort; to precipitate the bitter substances in the hops; to speed up the thermal coagulation process of proteins and other substances to avoid affecting the flavor and body of the beer. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitter substances will be released and the bitter the beer will be. With long-term boiling, the hop essential oil will volatilize more, that is, the less aroma. Therefore, we usually add hops twice during the boiling process, adding hops at the first five minutes of the boiling to increase the bitterness of the beer; adding hops at the last five minutes of boiling to increase the aroma of the beer.
The wort is stirred to form a vortex, and negative pressure will be generated in the middle of the tank. The impurities in the wort will gradually concentrate in the center of the barrel, and finally the impurities are removed to obtain a clear wort.
In this step, we need to quickly reduce the wort temperature below 25°C. There are four reasons for cooling hot wort: one is that high-temperature wort is easy to oxidize, which affects the flavor; second, the hot wort within a certain temperature range is easy to be infected with bacteria; third, when yeast is added to high-temperature wort, the yeast will be directly scalded ; Fourth, the condensed solids will precipitate after the wort is cooled to further clarify the beer and remove off-flavors.
Yeast fermentation needs to go through a process of first aerobic and then anaerobic. The aerobic stage allows the yeast to breed enough for fermentation, and the reproduction of the yeast requires the participation of a large amount of oxygen,and the purpose of oxygenation is to facilitate the rapid propagation of yeast; The anaerobic stage is the stage where the yeast really plays the role of fermentation, in an anaerobic environment (anaerobic is due to the oxygen has been exhausted in the early reproduction stage), the survival of yeast needs to consume sugar, and discharge alcohol and carbon dioxide. These two metabolites of yeast are the main components of beer.
This is the stage of real "beer production". In a sense, yeast is the real brewer. If you don't serve the yeast well, your beer will not taste good. This stage is actually very complicated. Changes in any factors such as time, temperature, etc., will affect the fermentation results. If you wanna talk about it in detail, it would have taken several books to detail. If you want to understand the detailed principles of this stage, please refer to related professional books.
Depending on the beer style, the fermentation time varies. Generally, in a home-brewed environment, the main fermentation time for wheat, IPA and other styles can be 1-2 weeks; for heavy flavor styles such as Porter, Stout, and barley spirits, it takes longer, possibly about 1 month. The maturing time will be longer.
The fermentation stage is roughly divided into the high-speed yeast propagation period, the vigorous fermentation period, the stable fermentation period, the mature period and so on. During this period, at least it should be protected from light and oxygen, and if possible, it is best to achieve constant temperature fermentation.
home brewing beer fermenter
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