|What does mashing mean?|
Saccharification means conversion into sugar. In whiskey distillation, it refers to the process that occurs during the malt manufacturing and saccharification stages. The enzyme in the malt (called amylase) converts the starch in the grain into sugar to prepare it for yeast fermentation.
|What is amylase?|
When temperature and humidity conditions are favorable for germination, the germ and related parts of the barley grain secrete an enzyme mixture commonly called amylase. These functions are to modify the starch in barley and make it soluble, so as to prepare for the later conversion into maltose.
|What is wort?|
Wort is the liquid drained from a mashing bucket where malt and unmalt grains are mashed with warm water. Wort contains all the sugar and some minor components of malt. After cooling, it is passed to the fermentation tank. In a malt brewery, the grains are all sprouted; in a grain brewery, only part of it is sprouted and the rest is unsprouted. In some cases, the grain brewery does not separate the wort, but passes the complete mash to the fermentation vessel.
|What is washing?|
Technically speaking, once the yeast is added to start the fermentation, the wort or wort becomes a washing liquid. However, the term is usually used to refer to the liquid at the end of the fermentation. The washing liquid is the raw material for the first distillation in the tank distillation process, and it is also the only raw material for distillation in the patented distillation process.
|What is pot distillation?|
Malt whiskey is distilled twice in a tank still similar to a giant copper kettle-although some distilleries may perform a third distillation.
The spirits are expelled from the fermented liquid in the form of steam and then condense into a liquid.
In the first distillation, the fermentation liquid or washing liquid is put into the washing distiller, and directly heated by fire or steam heating coil.
At this stage, the washing liquid contains yeast, crude alcohol, some non-fermentable substances and fermentation by-products. In the process of boiling the washing liquid, its composition has changed, which is very important to the flavor and characteristics of the whiskey.
As the washing liquid boils, the steam passes upwards through the neck of the distiller, and then passes through a water-cooled condenser or a worm, a coiled copper tube with a decreasing diameter, enclosed in a water jacket, and cold water circulates through the water jacket.
This condenses the steam, and the resulting distillate is called low-grade wine, which is collected for re-distillation. The liquor remaining in the washing distiller is called distillers' grains or shochu, and is usually processed and converted into distilled solubles for animal feed.
Low-alcohol wine is distilled again in the spirits distiller. The appearance and structure are similar to the washing distiller, but the volume is smaller because there is less liquid to be processed. Distilled in a spirits distiller to get three fractions. The first is called proactive, the second constitutes a drinkable spirit, and the third is called a feint. The proactive and fake actions are returned to the process and re-distilled in the spirit of the next low-grade wine charge. The residue in the distiller is called spent distillers grains and is wasted.
Taking the distiller as an example, the design of the distiller, the height of the head (or top) of the distiller, and the angle of the large-diameter pipe or the Len arm connecting the head and the condenser are all very important. And have an effect on the distillate.
Over the centuries, the overall design of the pot has not changed much.
|What is patent distillation?|
Unlike malt whiskey, grain whiskey is distilled in a continuous operation in a patented still. This is sometimes called Coffey Still, named after Aeneas Coffey, who developed it in 1831.
The steam is sent to the bottom of the analyzer, and the hot wash enters the top. When the two meet on the surface of the perforated plate, the washing liquid boils and the mixture of alcohol vapor and uncondensed vapor rises to the top of the tower. The used washing liquid flows down and drains from the base.
The hot steam enters the rectifier at the bottom, and as they rise through the chamber, they partially condense on the part of the long coil through which the washing liquid flows. The alcohol vapor is condensed on the top of the rectifier, and then flows into the alcohol safe and alcohol receiver through a water-cooled condenser. Once the spirits are collected, it will continue to run until the end of the distillation.
Due to the presence of distillation elements in this process, the aroma of the distillate is usually lighter than most malt whiskies. Therefore, it has more gentle characteristics and requires less time to mature.
Functional Chart of a Pot Still Distillery
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